Perseverance is a Mars rover mission by NASA's Mars Exploration Program. It will investigate an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars, its surface geological processes and history, including the assessment of its past habitability, the possibility of past life on Mars, and the potential for preservation of biosignatures within accessible geological materials.
Launched on a ULA Atlas V rocket (a joint venture between Lockheed Martin and Boeing), the "Persy" rover landed on Mars in February 2021 (almost seven months after launch) on Jezero Crater where it will look for habitable environments and evidence of past microbial life.
The rover is equipped with two HD cameras and also a set of two microphones to record the sounds of the landing and the Red Planet wind.
The rover also carry a small detachable helicopter (called Ingenuity) that will make the first powered flights on another planet, taking aerial images of Mars cliffs, caves and craters. For now the plan is to make five flights with a maximum duration of 90 seconds. The maximum distance to travel in each flight will be 300 meters and the helicopter should not go higher than 10 meters.
Chang'e 5 mission was China's first ever sample return mission, returning lunar soil and rock samples back to the Earth. It has four different parts: an orbiter, a lander, an ascender and an Earth re-entry module. It landed on Mons Rümker, a mountain nearby a large area called Oceanus Procellarum.
Chang'e 5 was the first mission to bring back moon samples since the last Apollo mission of 1972 and the Soviet Union's Luna 24 in 1976.
SpaceX's Starship SN8 was the first prototype to perform a high altitude flight test.
This suborbital flight was designed to test a number of objectives, from how the vehicle's three Raptor engines perform, and the overall aerodynamic entry capabilities of the vehicle, including its body flaps, to how the vehicle manages propellant transition.
SN8 also performed an amazing landing flip maneuver, but exploded during the landing.
Asteroid sample-return mission operated by the Japanese space agency JAXA, carrying multiple payloads for science: remote sensing, sampling, and four small rovers/landers that investigated the asteroid surface.
It surveyed the asteroid for a year and a half, collected samples multiple times and departed from the asteroid in November 2019. Six years after being launched it finally landed in Australia in December 2020 with the samples collected from asteroid Ryugu.
Asteroid study and sample-return mission to study asteroid 101955 Bennu, a carbonaceous 500 meter diameter asteroid. The objective of the mission is to grab a sample from the asteroid and bring it to Earth.
In this full automated procedure that took only a few seconds, the probe used its robot arm to fire a nitrogen canister to shake the surface of the asteroid and successfully collected a sample. A few seconds later OSIRIS-REx performed a back-away burn from the asteroid Bennu.
The spacecraft will be back to Earth in 2023 with all the samples collected.
China's Chang'e 4 probe, consisting of a lander and rover, landed successfully on the far side of the moon, marking the first ever soft-landing on the moon's largely unexplored far side.
The objective of the Chang'e 4 mission is to determine the age and composition of an unexplored region of the Moon, as well as develop technologies required for the later stages of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.
The first spacecraft ever to explore the dwarf planet Pluto in 2015, started the year of 2019 with a flyby of Arrokoth (aka Ultima Thule), a distant Kuiper belt object roughly 35km tall and 14km wide. This marks the farthest-ever flyby in human history.